The following references to academic papers and independent research conducted on diatomaceous earth tested around the world are provided for general information. The research has been conducted on diatomaceous earth supplied by others and in some cases, but not all, include tests on Mount Garnet Diatomaceous Earth which is supplied by Diatomaceous Earth Online.

Natural silicon fertilizer in Queensland, Vladimir Matichenkov and John Campbell  Institute Basic Biological Problems – Russian Academy of Sciences

This article discusses the use of our Mt Garnet silica as a soil amendment.

Abstract

Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. This element is recognized as beneficial but not as essential for plant growth. Numerous investigations have shown positive effects of silicon on both soil fertility and plant growth. A deposit of natural source of Si (Natural Silica, NS) near Mr Garnet in North Queensland can be used as a soil amendment. This material was tested in greenhouse investigations under drought and salt toxicity conditions and in unreplicated tests conducted on 150 commercial fields from Mossman to Bundaberg during 2008-2010. Natural Silica had a positive influence on soil properties and increased average yields of sugarcane, hay, potato, banana, and tropical fruits. Natural Silica provided the possibility of reducing the application of traditional fertilizers by 20 to 30% without negative impact on crop production.

http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2010/crop-production/soil-biology-nutrition/7055_matichenko.htm 

Effects of silicon on growth processes and adaptive potential of barley plants under optimal soil watering and flooding

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in pots with brown loess soil and highly soluble amorphous silicon dioxide as the source of monosilicic acid to examine its influence on plant growth and adaptive potential under optimal soil watering and flooding. The adaptive potential of plants was estimated by the concentration of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (AsP) activities. Application of amorphous silica to the soil increased the Si content in barley shoots and roots and stimulated their growth and biomass production under optimal soil watering. Soil flooding suppressed the growth both of the (−Si)- and (+Si)-plants. The intensity of oxidative destruction estimated by the concentration of TBARs was lower in the roots and leaves of the (+Si)-plants. Soil flooding induced SOD activity in the roots and in the leaves of the (−Si;+flooding) and (+Si;+flooding)-plants, but no significant differences were observed due to the Si treatment. GPX activity in the roots of (+Si)-plants was higher than in the (−Si)-ones under optimal soil watering, but under soil flooding no differences between (+Si)- and (−Si)-treatments were observed. AsP activity was not influenced by Si treatment neither under optimal soil watering nor under flooding. Thus, application of Si stimulates growth processes of barley shoots and roots under optimal soil watering and decreases intensity of oxidative destruction under soil flooding without significant changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Field Report, J. S. Bunker, Bunker Farms, Mesa, Arizona

After feeding 100 dairy cows on silica for approximately one year, the following results were noted:

  • Butterfat content has risen from 503 lbs [228 kg] per cow to 513 lbs [232 kg] per cow.
  • Warbles became nonexistent
  • Fly nuisance almost completely disappeared
  • Odors were almost completely gone
  • Cows have better hair and coat condition
  • Have no desire to lick soil as in the past
  • Vet bills have been significantly reduced

Research Report, Private Farm Ulianovsk Region, Dr. Vladimir Matichenkov

 An application of 40 grams per day per cow resulted in the following:

  • ·         Increased in milk production from 9 liters per cow per day to 12 liters per cow per day (33% total increase)
  • ·         Increase in butter fat from 3% to 5% 

 Field Report, Daniel M Brandt, McFarland, Wisconsin

 Results from feeding 5 to 6 ounces [142 to 170 grams] of food-grade silica to dairy herd for a period of five weeks:

  • Butterfat tests have shown an increase of 3.7 to 3.9
  • Mastitis, which had been quite a severe problem, came under control (no new cases)
  • Cows are brighter and healthier in appearance
  • Milk production has increased without an appreciable increase in feed.

Research Report, Dr. Vladimir Matichenkov

Results of tests carried out on cows demonstrated that optimized silica nutrition reduces the required total feed application by 25% without a negative effect on the development of the tested animals. 

University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Medicine

When a 2% ration of silica was fed to dairy cattle an analysis revealed no incidence of residue in the milk.

Field Report, Dairy Herd Association Improvement Program, Hussey Farms, Litchfield Park, Arizona

Tests run on purebred Jersey dairy cows given free choice access to codex food-grade silica. Average intake was three ounces [85 grams] per cow per day. After six months the following results were observed:

  • Milk production in the test group increased over 20% with butterfat content remaining the same.
  • Warbles problems came to an abrupt halt.
  • Feed assimilation improved and fly problems were brought under control.

Related Research

Dr. Jack Martin, Sterling Nutritional Services

Four groups of cattle of over 300 head each, test steers, control steers, test heifers, control heifers. All groups primarily Hereford/Angus crosses with remainder being Hereford, Angus or exotics. All groups nearly identical in breed composition.  Test groups were fed a silica feed supplement at the rate of 3% of total daily ration. (Note: Midway through the test, Heifer ration was changed from 3% to 1.5% as there had been a reduction in the daily feed consumption with the test heifers. Normal feed consumption resumed with the lower percentage of silica feed supplement.) Significant findings include:

  • Fewer Deaths: Silica fed calves had lower pen mortalities. None of the test group deaths were caused by lactic acidosis, a common result of switching calves from pasture to feedlot.
  • Lower Feed Cost: Test animals experienced daily weight gain similar to the control animals while consuming less feed.
  • Increased Profit: Performance was better in the steer group. The silica fed steers yielded $9.10 per head more profit than the control steers. The silica fed heifers produced $8.30 per head more money.

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS OF FEEDING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO DOGS, O.C. Collins, DVM, Midland Animal Clinic and Hospital, Midland, Texas

In clinical observations of feeding dogs over 35 lbs. 1 tablespoon/day and under 35 lbs. 1 teaspoon/day of diatomaceous earth, within seven days allova disappeared from stools. Diatomaceous Earth controlled Ascarids (Toxacara canis), Hookworms (Anclyostoma caninum), and Whipworms (Trichuris vulipis).

FIELD REPORT ON EXPERIMENTAL FEEDING OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO ZOO ANIMALS, Richard Smith, Hallwood Inc., Animal Food Specialties, Grand Rapids, Michigan

A mixture of feed incorporating 2% diatomaceous earth was sent to two zoos for evaluation. John Ball Park of Grand Rapids, Michigan and Brookfield Zoos of Chicago, Illinois. John Ball reported that their black bears on the special feed showed a better coat and clearer eyes. The primates fed at the Brookfield Zoo displayed a pronounced improvement in both appearance and behavior. Stool samples taken at all zoos showed an absence of any internal parasites – adult or egg. Parasites in these animals were present prior to using the diatomaceous earth food mixture.

TEST RESULTS FROM FEEDING A 5% RATION OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO RODENTS, Eldridge M. Burke, Ph.D. Arizona State University, Division of Life Sciences, Tempe, Arizona.

Comparison of test and control groups of rats where test and control groups were fed identical rations, i. E. 5 % codex food-grade diatomaceous earth (DE). Significant differences were manifested in weight gains. The DE tested group of males had an average weekly gain of 6.4% over the control group of male animals. There was no evidence observed relative to residual silica content of the test versus control animals. NOTE: The DE apparently had some growth stimulating effect during the early growth period. From a chemical analysis viewpoint it becomes apparent that many of the trace elements present are the same elements necessary for cell growth and metabolism. A second factor that may have influenced the growth rate is the property for the absorbability of the special grade of D.E. Although hypothetical at this time, it may be that food was absorbed into the surface of the diatom particles. This would assist in the enzyme action with the result of greater products of digestion being available to the animals.

RESULTS OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FED TO HORSES, For Winds Stables, Robert D. Horkman, Orlando, Florida

Results of feeding 5 oz. of diatomaceous earth to show horses for a period of one year. Healthier-looking animals with a definite sheen to their coats, absence of internal parasites, better feed conversion, reduction in manure odor, fly control, cured scours in cases where other medications had failed and improved appetites in “picky eaters.”

REPORT ON FEEDING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO WALKING HORSE, L.Thomas, Trainer, L. Frank Roper Stables, Winter Garden, Florida

With horses fed approximately 5 oz. of diatomaceous earth mixed in the feed twice daily, the following results were observed: 1. Stopped scours even on horses that had not responded to any other medications. 2. Noticeable fly reduction. 3. Horses showed an increase in appetites. 4. Weight gain due to better feed conversion. 5. Reduction in manure odor. 6. Elimination of any internal parasites. 7. Healthier appearance.

STUDY OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH IN FEED PIGS, M. F. Petty, DVM, Alabama

Results were as follows: 1. No internal parasites were discovered in the test group at any time after seven days of the DE. 2. All hogs on DE stopped rooting and destroying the wooden feeder after 10 days. 3. By the end of the third week the odor of the test group was noticeably less offensive than the control group. 4. At the end of six weeks the fly population decreased markedly.

RESULTS OF THE USE OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH WITH POULTRY, C.S. Mangen, DVM, San Diego, California

Using two groups of birds with each group consisting of 8,000 white leghorn caged layers in their pullet year which had been producing for five months. After feeding the test group 60 lbs. of diatomaceous earth per 1-1/2 tons of standard mixed feed (17% protein) for 2-1/2 months the following results were observed: 1. There appeared to be less flies around the test group. 2. Droppings are of a drier consistency, making for easier cleaning of the house. 3. Seventy-five percent less deaths in the test group. 4. A 2-4 case per day increase in egg production by the test group compared to the control group.

ORGAN ANALYSIS OF DAIRY COWS, Michigan Department of Agriculture, Laboratory Division, Lansing, Michigan

Upon pathological examination of the organs of dairy cows having been given free-choice feeding of codex food-grade diatomaceous earth for a period of approximately five years, no visible organ abnormalities were observed.

FIELD REPORT – FREE CHOICE FEEDING TO DAIRY CATTLE, Dairy Herd Association Improvement Program, Hussey Farms, Litchfield Park, Arizona

Tests run on purebred Jersey dairy cows given free choice access to codex food-grade diatomaceous earth (DE). Average intake was three ounces per cow per day. After six months the following results were observed: Milk production in the test group increased over 20% with butterfat content remaining the same. Warbles problems came to an abrupt halt. Feed assimilation improved and fly problems were brought under control.

FIELD REPORT – FEEDING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH (DE) TO DAIRY COWS, J. S. Bunker, Bunker Farms, Mesa, Arizona

After feeding 100 dairy cows on DE for approximately one year, the following results were noted: warbles became nonexistent; fly nuisance almost completely disappeared; odors were almost completely gone; cows have better hair and coat condition and have no desire to lick soil as in the past; vet bills have been significantly reduced; butterfat content has risen from 503 lbs. per cow to 513 lbs. per cow.

FIELD REPORT – FEEDING OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO DAIRY COWS, Daniel M. Brandt, McFarland, Wisconsin

Results from feeding 5 to 6 ounces of food-grade diatomaceous earth to dairy herd for a period of five weeks: Butterfat tests have shown an increase of 3.7 to 3.9; mastitis, which had been quite a severe problem, came under control (no new cases); cows are brighter and healthier in appearance and milk production has increased without an appreciable increase in feed.

RESULTS OF THE USE OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH WITH POULTRY, C.S. Mangen, D.V.M., San Diego, California.

Using two groups of birds with each group consisting of 8,000 white leghorn caged layers in their pullet year, which had been producing for five months. The test group was given 60 lbs. of diatomaceous earth per 1 ½ tons of standard mixed feed (17% protein) for 2 ½ months. The following results were observed:

1. There appeared to be fewer flies around test group.
2. Droppings were of a drier consistency, making for easier cleaning of the houses.
3. Seventy-five percent less deaths in the test group.
4. A two to four case-per-day increase in egg production by the test group compared to the controlled group.

RESULTS OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FED TO HORSES, Four Winds Stables, Robert D. Horkman, Orlando, Florida.

Results of feeding 5 ounces of diatomaceous earth to show horses for a period of one year. Healthier looking animals with a definite sheen to their coat, absence of internal parasites, better feed conversion, reduction in manure odor, fly control, cured scours in cases where other medications had failed and improved appetites in “picky-eaters”.

REPORT ON FEEDING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO WALKING HORSES, L. Thomas, trainer, L. Frank Roper Stables, Winter Garden, Florida.
With horses fed approximately 5 ounces of diatomaceous earth mixed into the
feed twice daily, the following results were observed:
1. Stopped scours even on horses that had not responded to any other medications.
2. Noticeable fly reduction.
3. Horses showed an increase in appetites.
4. Weight gain due to better-feed conversation.
5. Reduction in manure odor.
6. Elimination of any internal parasites.
7. Healthier appearance.

STUDY OF CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH IN FEEDER PIGS, M. F. Petty, D.V.M., Alabama .

1. No internal parasites were discovered in the test group at any time after seven days.
2. All hogs on DE stopped rooting and destroying the wooden feeder after ten days.
3. By the end of the third week the odor of the test group was noticeably less offensive than the control group.
4. By the end of six weeks the fly population decreased markedly

ORGAN ANALYSIS OF DAIRY COWS, Michigan Department of Agriculture, Laboratory Division, Lansing, Michigan

Upon pathological examination of the organs of dairy cows having been given free-choice feeding of codex food-grade diatomaceous earth for a period of approximately five years, no visible organ abnormalities were observed.

REPORT ON POSSIBLE HAZARDS OF FEEDING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO DAIRY CATTLE, University of Illinois, College of veterinary medicine.
When a 2% ration of codex food-grade diatomaceous earth was incorporated into the feed of dairy cattle, there was no evidence of absorption nor did any residue of the product appear in the milk.

FIELD TEST/STEER FEEDING EXPERIMENT USING CODEX FOOD-GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH, G.L. Maddox, Northside Hay Mill & Trading Company, Glendale, Arizona.
CONTROL DE
Average purchase weight/head 650.2 lbs 686.8 lbs
Average out weight/head 846.7 lbs 945.6 lbs
Average gain/head 196.5 lbs 258.8 lbs
Average gain/head/day 2.3 lbs 2.8 lbs
Pounds feed/ pounds gain 9.8 lbs 8.2 lbs
Average cost/ pounds gain $ .243 $ .215
In all instances the diatomaceous earth test group gained more weight per steer, on less feed than the control lot.